The next DaP meeting will take place on the 19th of May at 15:30 at the Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive (Salle de Voutes), Bâtiment 9 Case D, 3, place Victor Hugo, Marseille . During the meeting, Michele Scaltritti from the Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive will present a study on: The functional relationship between language and motor processing in typewriting: An EEG study
Authors: Michele Scaltritti1, Svetlana Pinet1, Marieke Longcamp2, F.-Xavier Alario1
Affiliations: 1LPC UMR 7290, Aix-Marseille Université , CNRS, France; 2LNC UMR 7291, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, France
Abstract : There is growing interest in understanding the functional relationship between language and motor processing during language production. We addressed this issue using event-related potentials recorded during a typewriting task. Linguistic processes were indexed by the N400 component, and motor processes were indexed by lateralized response-related potentials. The experiment consisted in a semantic-priming paradigm, with written prime-words briefly presented before auditory target-words. We manipulated factorially the Semantic Relatedness between primes and targets (Related vs. Unrelated), and Response Side (first two letters of the targets typed with Right vs. Left hand).
The standard N400 effect was replicated, with an attenuation of the negative going potential in the Related compared to the Unrelated condition. Response Side yielded lateralized potentials traditionally linked with motor-response preparation, consisting in negative-going components over electrodes contralateral to the responding hand, and more positive-going ones over ipsilateral electrodes. The two manipulations yielded independent effects, with no signs of statistical interaction. These results appear to be more in line with a staged account of the transition from language to motor processing in the context of language production.
The next DaP meeting will take place on the 21th of April at 15:30 at the Laboratoire Parole et Langage, 5 Avenue Pasteur, 13100 Aix-en-Provence. During the meeting, Jean Baptiste Bernard from the Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive in Marseille will present a study on: Predicting oculomotor strategies in reading with normal and damaged visual fields.
Abstract : The distribution of fixation positions during reading shows that normally-sighted subjects typically read by successively placing their fovea next to the center of the words, in order to reduce the deleterious effects of the visual periphery such as reduced acuity or crowding. In this study, we present a Bayesian ideal observer of reading which is based on spatiotemporal characteristics of letter recognition across the visual field. Our approach to reading assumes that the optimal fixation is the one that optimizes the “Expected Information Gain” to identify the letters from the current word. At each fixation, Bayesian inference is used to combine prior knowledge with newly extracted information about letter identities. This is done by using letter recognition rates and letter confusion matrices across the visual field. Lexical inference is also used to update letter identity information at each fixation. The model predicts the 2D spatiotemporal pattern of saccades during reading, in contrast with theories that use 1D letter-slot approaches to model reading. This is critical to predict optimal reading strategies for readers who cannot extract visual information with their fovea, such as Age-related Macular Degenerescence patients. Model predictions for normal and damaged visual field are discussed.
The next DaP meeting will take place on the 17th of March at 15:30 at the Laboratoire Parole et Langage, 5 Avenue Pasteur, 13100 Aix-en-Provence. During the meeting, Mathieu Declerck will present a study on: Bilingual inhibition during naming and reading.
Authors: Mathieu Declerck1, Andrea M. Philipp2, and Jonathan Grainger1
Affiliations: 1 Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive, Brain & Language Research Institute, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France; 2 Institute of Psychology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
Abstract: Many models assume that inhibition plays an integral role during bilingual language control (i.e., a process that restricts bilingual language processing to the target language). However, there is limited evidence for such a claim. In the current study, we set out to investigate one known marker of inhibition (i.e., n-2 language repetition costs) that has solely been investigated with digit naming. In the current study, we investigated n-2 language repetition costs during picture naming and written word reading aloud. Several studies demonstrated that picture naming requires lexical-semantic processing, whereas reading aloud words mainly relies on phonological processing. Since most bilingual inhibition models assume that inhibition is implemented during lexical-semantic processing, little to no n-2 language repetition costs should be found during written word reading, but large costs are expected during picture naming. The results showed that n-2 language repetition costs were found during both naming and reading aloud, but were smaller with the latter. Our results clearly indicate that inhibition is implemented during picture naming and reading words aloud in bilinguals, even though less inhibition is implemented during reading aloud due to a possible lexical-semantic locus of inhibition.